Percona XtraBackup Point-In-Time Recovery for the Single Database

Percona XtraBackup Point-In-Time RecoveryRecovering to a particular time in the past is called Point-In-Time Recovery (PITR). With PITR you can rollback unwanted DELETE without WHERE clause or any other harmful command.

PITR with Percona XtraBackup is pretty straightforward and perfectly described in the user manual. You need to restore the data from the backup, then apply all binary logs created or updated after the backup was taken, but skip harmful event(s).

However, if your data set is large you may want to recover only the affected database or table. This is possible but you need to be smart when filtering events from the binary log. In this post, I will show how to perform such a partial recovery using Percona XtraBackup, mysql command-line client, and mysqlbinlog programs only. There is an alternative approach that involves creating a fake source server, that is described in MySQL Point in Time Recovery the Right Way. You may consider it, especially if you need to apply changes to a single table.

Percona XtraBackup Point-In-Time Recovery

For our example we will create data first, then run DROP and DELETE commands on two different tables. Then we will rollback these commands.

First, let’s assume we have a server with two databases: test and sbtest. We are using GTIDs and row-based binary log format. We also run the server with the option innodb_file_per_table=1 and all our InnoDB tables use individual tablespaces. Otherwise, the individual restore method would not work.

We will experiment with tables foo and bar. We assume that at the time of our first backup, each of the tables contained five rows. Tables in the database sbtest also contain data, but it does not really matter for our experiment.

Since we want to restore individual tables, we need to make a preparation before taking a backup: store database structure. We will do it with help of the mysqldump command. In this example, I store structure per database to make partial PITR easier, but you are free to use the option --all-databases.

Then we are ready to take the backup.

I am using the option --parallel to speed up the backup process.

Now let’s do some testing. First, let’s update rows in the table foo.

And then drop it and delete all rows from the table bar.

Finally, let’s insert a few rows into the tables bar and baz.

Assume that the DROP TABLE and DELETE command was an accident and we want to restore the state of the tables foo and bar as they were before these unlucky statements.

First, we need to prepare the backup.

Since we are interested in restoring only tables in the database test we need to prepare the backup with a special option --export that exports tablespaces in a way that they could be later imported:

Now the directory for the database test contains not only table definition files (.frm, only before 8.0) and tablespace files (.ibd) but also configuration files (.cfg).

Since we want all changes that happened after backup and before the problematic DROP TABLE and DELETE statements were applied, we need to identify which binary log and position were actual at the backup time. We can find it in the xtrabackup_binlog_info file:

Now we are ready to perform restore.

First, let’s restore the table foo from the backup. Restoring individual tablespaces requires the ALTER TABLE ... IMPORT TABLESPACE command. This command assumes that the table exists in the server. However, in our case, it was dropped and therefore we need to re-create it.

We will recreate the full database test from the file test_structure.sql

Since we do not want these administrative tasks to be re-applied, I suggest disabling binary logging for the session which will recreate the database structure.

Once tables are recreated discard their tablespaces. I will show an example for the table foo. Adjust the code for the rest of the tables.

Then, in another terminal, copy the tablespace and configuration files from the backup to the database directory:

And, finally, import the tablespace: