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Introducing tcprstat, a TCP response time tool

 | August 31, 2010 |  Posted In: MySQL, Percona Software


Ignacio Nin and I (mostly Ignacio) have worked together to create tcprstat[1], a new tool that times TCP requests and prints out statistics on them. The output looks somewhat like vmstat or iostat, but we’ve chosen the statistics carefully so you can compute meaningful things about your TCP traffic.

What is this good for? In a nutshell, it is a lightweight way to measure response times on a server such as a database, memcached, Apache, and so on. You can use this information for historical metrics, capacity planning, troubleshooting, and monitoring to name just a few.

The tcprstat tool itself is a means of gathering raw statistics, which are suitable for storing and manipulating with other programs and scripts. By default, tcprstat works just like vmstat: it runs once, prints out a line, and exits. You’ll probably want to tell it to run forever, and continue to print out more lines. Each line contains a timestamp and information about the response time of the requests within that time period. Here “response time” means, for a given TCP connection, the time elapsed from the last inbound packet until the first outbound packet. For many simple protocols such as HTTP and MySQL, this is the moral equivalent of a query’s response time.

The statistics we chose to output by default are the count, median, average, min, max, and standard deviation of the response times, in microseconds. These are repeated for the 95th and 99th percentiles as well. Other metrics are also available. Here’s a sample:

tcprstat uses libpcap to capture traffic. It’s a threaded application that does the minimum possible work and uses efficient data structures. Your feedback on the kernel/userland exchange overhead caused by the packet sniffing would be very appreciated — libpcap allows the user to tune this exchange, so if you have suggestions on how to improve it, that’s great.

We build statically linked binaries with the preferred version of libpcap, which means there are no dependencies. You can just run the tool. In the future, packages in the Percona repositories will provide another means for rapid installation via yum and apt.

tcprstat is beta software. Several C/C++ experts reviewed its code and gave it a thumbs-up, so many eyes have been on the code. We’ve performed tests on servers with high loads and observed minimal resource consumption. I personally have been running it for many weeks on some production servers without stopping it and have seen no problems, so I am pretty sure it has no memory leaks or other problems. Nevertheless, it’s a first prototype release, and we want much more testing. We might also change the functionality; as we build tools around it, we discover new things that might be useful. When we’re happy with it and you’re happy with it, we’ll take the Beta label away and make it GA.

The tcprstat user’s manual and links to downloads are on the Percona wiki. Commercial support and services are provided by Percona. Bug reports, feature requests, etc should go to the Launchpad project linked from the user’s manual. General discussion is welcome on the Google Group also linked from the user’s manual.

[1] Historical note: we initially called this tool rtime, but did not publicize it. However, some of you might have heard of “rtime” before. This is the same tool.

Baron Schwartz

Baron is the lead author of High Performance MySQL. He is a former Percona employee.


  • You should state the kernel version required.

    $ ./tcprstat-static.v0.3.1.x86_64
    FATAL: kernel too old
    Segmentation fault
    $ uname -sr

  • That’s a great stuff, folks!!! :-))

    Do you plan to port it on other platforms than Linux?..

    And a small feature request so far – it’ll be great to print stats from several TCP ports on the same time! 😉
    For ex. you accept several port numbers / ranges within -p option, and then you print multi-line stats separated by empty line (similar to “iostat”, but instead of disk names you’ll have port numbers!) – that will be even more great! – specially when you want to monitor several MySQL instances in parallel or simply combine Apache and MySQL and others on the same output 🙂

    Once it’ll become GA I’ll integrate it into dim_STAT with a pleasure! 🙂


  • I just installed Bazaar to download source and see if I can get this up on Solaris 8 (got a legacy MySQL installation in need of love).

  • Hi Baron,

    now when you’re asking.. :-)) – personally I’d like to have it also on Solaris :-)) but on the same time it’s very possible that DTrace will be able to print a similar information too.. – will check :-)) And then – I have no idea if any other UNIXes are popular to host MySQL as Linux.. – on the same time the tool may be useful not only for MySQL ;-)) – so I think you may see what the demand will be, and then decide according priorities 🙂


  • Perhaps it is worth mentioning that it does not really represent performance of the queries (or more exactly of the database roundtrips) as experienced by the client application. My understanding is measurement is done on server-side, so it completely excludes network latency. Another suggestion would be to publish a list of well-known servers/protocols which are suitable for such measurements. Purpose is to prevent people to run it against pipelining/multiplexing or non client/server protocols which will only result in meaningless data.

  • If you want true measurement of the query response time, you have to do it in the database server itself (i.e. use the slow query log in MySQL), because even measuring TCP traffic on the server isn’t that precise due to kernel buffering and such. But this is actually the typical place where queries are measured, so it’s not as if server-side measurement is a weakness of tcprstat! Now, it is perfectly legitimate to measure from the client side, although you have to be careful of this, because you no longer know the difference between the network time and the query response time. This is one reason why tcprstat has the -l option.

    I think that it’s more usual for protocols to be a simple call-and-response, and it would be better to make a list of protocols that fall outside this category, instead of listing all the ones that are valid to measure with tcprstat.

  • Hi Baron,
    I have some questions about tcprstat tool.

    first, is the tcprstat filter some packet’s response time? such as packets used to build a connection with MySQL Server. because if the tcprstat counts these packets’s response time into output, then the result may not precise.

    second, maybe you can provide more accuracy result, such as 99.99_max 99.99_agv, 99.999_max, 99.999_avg and so on.

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