State of the art: Galera – synchronous replication for InnoDBVadim Tkachenko
First time I heard about Galera on Percona Performance Conference 2009, Seppo Jaakola was presenting “Galera: Multi-Master Synchronous MySQL Replication Clusters”. It was impressed as I personally always wanted it for InnoDB, but we had it in plans at the bottom of the list, as this is very hard to implement properly.
The idea by itself is not new, I remember synchronous replication was announced for SolidDB on MySQL UC 2007, but later the product was killed by IBM.
So long time after PPC 2009 there was available version mysql-galera-0.6, which had serious flow, to setup a new node you had to take down whole cluster. And all this time Codership ( company that develops Galera) was working on 0.7 release that introduces node propagation keeping cluster online. You can play with 0.7pre release by yourself MySQL/Galera Release 0.7pre.
In current version propagation is done by mysqldump from one of nodes (“donor”). In next release Codership is going to support LVM snapshot and xtrabackup which will make the setup of new node even easier. The current annoyance I see is that if you shutdown one node for short period of time for quick maintenance, after start, the node has to load whole mysqldump, like it is new empty node. I hope Codership guys will address this also.
Another thing I miss for now is support of InnoDB-plugin, which as we know performs much better than standard InnoDB ®.
So what is so interesting about Galera. Couple things:
– High Availability. Any of N standby nodes are available immediately when main node fails. Galera is serious pretender to be included to the list, Yves put recently, https://www.percona.com/blog/2009/10/16/finding-your-mysql-high-availability-solution-%e2%80%93-the-questions/. I am not sure how many nines it will provide :), but efforts on test setup and deployment should be comparable with MMM setup.
– Scale Writes. Galera allows to write to any of N nodes and automatically propagate to other nodes. It sounds too ideal, and there is drawback – with increasing amount of nodes you write to, your transaction rollback rate may increase, especially if you working on the same dataset. You can find some results on Codership’s page, and I am going to run my own benchmarks also. Also from benchmark you can see that communication overhead maybe significant for short writes.
– Scale Reads. It can be done with regular replication, but with synchronous your “slaves-nodes” are in the same state, there is no “slave behind”. When you read from any slave, you read actual data. Although it also has serious drawback – our cluster is fast as fast the “weakest” node in the chain. So if one node gets overloaded and performance degrades, the same happens with whole cluster.
– Heterogeneous-database replication. It is not here yet, and I do not know what’s in Codership roadmap, but group manager protocol in Galera is database independent, and it’s only matter of database drivers. For InnoDB currently it is set of patches, and I see it is quite possible to make the same for Postgres. So MySQL-Postgres cluster setup is not so far ahead 🙂
On “Company page” Codership says their goal is “to promote and exploit the latest developments in computer science to produce fast and scalable synchronous replication solution that “just works” for databases and similar applications”, which I think they have success in. Implementing fast, scalable and working group communication and transaction manager is the art.
As for now I would not put 0.7 release into production yet, but you may seriously consider to play with it in test environment, and report bugs to Codership team, they are very responsive.
I am waiting for next releases and looking to make integration with XtraDB.