Each InnoDB page (usually 16kb in size) contains a log sequence number, or LSN. The LSN is the system version number for the entire database. Each page’s LSN shows how recently it was changed.
Storage engine which provides ACID-compliant transactions and foreign key support, among others improvements over MyISAM. It is the default engine for MySQL as of the 5.5 series.
Previous default storage engine for MySQL for versions prior to 5.5. It doesn’t fully support transactions but in some scenarios may be faster than InnoDB. Each table is stored on disk in 3 files: .frm, .MYD, .MYI.
Global Transaction ID, in Percona XtraDB Cluster it consists of UUID and an ordinal sequence number which denotes the position of the change in the sequence.
HAProxy is a free, very fast and reliable solution offering high availability, load balancing, and proxying for TCP and HTTP-based applications. It is particularly suited for web sites crawling under very high loads while needing persistence or Layer7 processing. Supporting tens of thousands of connections is clearly realistic with todays hardware. Its mode of operation makes its integration into existing architectures very easy and riskless, while still offering the possibility not to expose fragile web servers to the net.
Incremental State Transfer. Functionality which instead of whole state snapshot can catch up with te group by receiving the missing writesets, but only if the writeset is still in the donor’s writeset cache.
State Snapshot Transfer is the full copy of data from one node to another. It’s used when a new node joins the cluster, it has to transfer data from existing node. There are three methods of SST available in Percona XtraDB Cluster: mysqldump, rsync and xtrabackup. The downside of mysqldump and rsync is that the node becomes READ-ONLY while data is being copied from one node to another (SST applies FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK command). Xtrabackup SST does not require READ LOCK for the entire syncing process, only for syncing the MySQL system tables and writing the information about the binlog, galera and slave information (same as the regular XtraBackup backup). State snapshot transfer method can be configured with the wsrep_sst_method variable.
Universally Unique IDentifier which uniquely identifies the state and the sequence of changes node undergoes.
Percona XtraBackup is an open-source hot backup utility for MySQL - based servers that doesn’t lock your database during the backup.
Percona XtraDB is an enhanced version of the InnoDB storage engine, designed to better scale on modern hardware, and including a variety of other features useful in high performance environments. It is fully backwards compatible, and so can be used as a drop-in replacement for standard InnoDB. More information here .
XtraDB Cluster
Percona XtraDB Cluster is a high availability solution for MySQL.
Percona XtraDB Cluster
Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) is a high availability solution for MySQL.
This file refers to the database server’s main configuration file. Most Linux distributions place it as /etc/mysql/my.cnf, but the location and name depends on the particular installation. Note that this is not the only way of configuring the server, some systems does not have one even and rely on the command options to start the server and its defaults values.
cluster replication
Normal replication path for cluster members. Can be encrypted (not by default) and unicast or multicast (unicast by default). Runs on tcp port 4567 by default.
The directory in which the database server stores its databases. Most Linux distribution use /var/lib/mysql by default.
donor node
The node elected to provide a state transfer (SST or IST).
Default prefix for tablespace files, e.g. ibdata1 is a 10MB autoextendable file that MySQL creates for the shared tablespace by default.
InnoDB option to use separate .ibd files for each table.
joiner node
The node joining the cluster, usually a state transfer target.
A cluster node – a single mysql instance that is in the cluster.
primary cluster
A cluster with quorum. A non-primary cluster will not allow any operations and will give Unknown command errors on any clients attempting to read or write from the database.
A majority (> 50%) of nodes. In the event of a network partition, only the cluster partition that retains a quorum (if any) will remain Primary by default.
split brain
Split brain occurs when two parts of a computer cluster are disconnected, each part believing that the other is no longer running. This problem can lead to data inconsistency.
For each table, the server will create a file with the .frm extension containing the table definition (for all storage engines).
On a multiple tablespace setup (innodb_file_per_table enabled), MySQL will store each newly created table on a file with a .ibd extension.
Each MyISAM table has .MYD (MYData) file which contains the data on it.
Each MyISAM table has .MYI (MYIndex) file which contains the table’s indexes.
Each table using the MERGE storage engine, besides of a .frm file, will have .MRG file containing the names of the MyISAM tables associated with it.
File containing the triggers associated to a table, e.g. mytable.TRG. With the .TRN file, they represent all the trigger definitions.
File containing the triggers’ Names associated to a table, e.g. mytable.TRN. With the .TRG file, they represent all the trigger definitions.
Each table with the Archive Storage Engine has .ARM file which contains the metadata of it.
Each table with the Archive Storage Engine has .ARZ file which contains the data of it.
Each table with the CSV Storage Engine has .CSM file which contains the metadata of it.
Each table with the CSV Storage engine has .CSV file which contains the data of it (which is a standard Comma Separated Value file).
MySQL stores options of a database (like charset) in a file with a .opt extension in the database directory.

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