pt-upgrade - Execute queries on multiple servers and check for differences.


Usage: pt-upgrade [OPTION...] DSN [DSN...] [FILE]

pt-upgrade compares query execution on two hosts by executing queries in the given file (or STDIN if no file given) and examining the results, errors, warnings, etc.produced on each.

Execute and compare all queries in slow.log on host1 to host2:

pt-upgrade slow.log h=host1 h=host2

Use pt-query-digest to get, execute and compare queries from tcpdump:

tcpdump -i eth0 port 3306 -s 65535  -x -n -q -tttt     \
  | pt-query-digest --type tcpdump --no-report --print \
  | pt-upgrade h=host1 h=host2

Compare only query times on host1 to host2 and host3:

pt-upgrade slow.log h=host1 h=host2 h=host3 --compare query_times

Compare a single query, no slowlog needed:

pt-upgrade h=host1 h=host2 --query 'SELECT * FROM db.tbl'


The following section is included to inform users about the potential risks, whether known or unknown, of using this tool. The two main categories of risks are those created by the nature of the tool (e.g. read-only tools vs. read-write tools) and those created by bugs.

pt-upgrade is a read-only tool that is meant to be used on non-production servers. It executes the SQL that you give it as input, which could cause undesired load on a production server.

At the time of this release, there is a bug that causes the tool to crash, and a bug that causes a deadlock.

The authoritative source for updated information is always the online issue tracking system. Issues that affect this tool will be marked as such. You can see a list of such issues at the following URL:

See also “BUGS” for more information on filing bugs and getting help.


pt-upgrade executes queries from slowlogs on one or more MySQL server to find differences in query time, warnings, results, and other aspects of the querys’ execution. This helps evaluate upgrades, migrations and configuration changes. The comparisons specified by “–compare” determine what differences can be found. A report is printed which outlines all the differences found; see “OUTPUT” below.

The first DSN (host) specified on the command line is authoritative; it defines the results to which the other DSNs are compared. You can “compare” only one host, in which case there will be no differences but the output can be saved to be diffed later against the output of another single host “comparison”.

At present, pt-upgrade only reads slowlogs. Use pt-query-digest --print to transform other log formats to slowlog.

DSNs and slowlog files can be specified in any order. pt-upgrade will automatically determine if an argument is a DSN or a slowlog file. If no slowlog files are given and “–query” is not specified then pt-upgrade will read from STDIN.




This tool accepts additional command-line arguments. Refer to the “SYNOPSIS” and usage information for details.

--ask-pass Prompt for a password when connecting to MySQL.

type: string; default: /tmp

Save outfiles for the rows comparison method in this directory.

See the rows “–compare-results-method”.


short form: -A; type: string

Default character set. If the value is utf8, sets Perl’s binmode on STDOUT to utf8, passes the mysql_enable_utf8 option to DBD::mysql, and runs SET NAMES UTF8 after connecting to MySQL. Any other value sets binmode on STDOUT without the utf8 layer, and runs SET NAMES after connecting to MySQL.


default: yes

Clear warnings before each warnings comparison.

If comparing warnings (“–compare” includes warnings), this option causes pt-upgrade to execute a successful SELECT statement which clears any warnings left over from previous queries. This requires a current database that pt-upgrade usually detects automatically, but in some cases it might be necessary to specify “–temp-database”. If pt-upgrade can’t auto-detect the current database, it will create a temporary table in the “–temp-database” called mk_upgrade_clear_warnings.


type: string

Execute SELECT \* FROM ... LIMIT 1 from this table to clear warnings.


type: Hash; default: query_times,results,warnings

What to compare for each query executed on each host.

Comparisons determine differences when the queries are executed on the hosts. More comparisons enable more differences to be detected. The following comparisons are available:


Compare query execution times. If this comparison is disabled, the queries are still executed so that other comparisons will work, but the query time attributes are removed from the events.


Compare result sets to find differences in rows, columns, etc.

What differences can be found depends on the “–compare-results-method” used.


Compare warnings from SHOW WARNINGS. Requires at least MySQL 4.1.

type: string; default: CHECKSUM; group: Comparisons

Method to use for “–compare” results. This option has no effect if --no-compare-results is given.

Available compare methods (case-insensitive):


Do CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE \`mk_upgrade\` AS query then CHECKSUM TABLE \`mk_upgrade\`. This method is fast and simple but in rare cases might it be inaccurate because the MySQL manual says:

[The] fact that two tables produce the same checksum does I<not> mean that
the tables are identical.

Requires at least MySQL 4.1.


Compare rows one-by-one to find differences. This method has advantages and disadvantages. Its disadvantages are that it may be slower and it requires writing and reading outfiles from disk. Its advantages are that it is universal (works for all versions of MySQL), it doesn’t alter the query in any way, and it can find column value differences.

The rows method works as follows:

1. Rows from each host are compared one-by-one.
2. If no differences are found, comparison stops, else...
3. All remain rows (after the point where they begin to differ)
   are written to outfiles.
4. The outfiles are loaded into temporary tables with
5. The temporary tables are analyzed to determine the differences.

The outfiles are written to the “–base-dir”.


type: Array

Read this comma-separated list of config files; if specified, this must be the first option on the command line.

 Continue working even if there is an error.

Convert non-SELECT statements to SELECTs and compare.

By default non-SELECT statements are not allowed. This option causes non-SELECT statments (like UPDATE, INSERT and DELETE) to be converted to SELECT statements, executed and compared.

For example, DELETE col FROM tbl WHERE id=1 is converted to SELECT col FROM tbl WHERE id=1.

--daemonize Fork to the background and detach from the shell. POSIX operating systems only.
 Print connection information and exit.

type: string

Discard events for which this Perl code doesn’t return true.

This option is a string of Perl code or a file containing Perl code that gets compiled into a subroutine with one argument: $event. This is a hashref. If the given value is a readable file, then pt-upgrade reads the entire file and uses its contents as the code. The file should not contain a shebang (#!/usr/bin/perl) line.

If the code returns true, the chain of callbacks continues; otherwise it ends. The code is the last statement in the subroutine other than return $event. The subroutine template is:

sub { $event = shift; filter && return $event; }

Filters given on the command line are wrapped inside parentheses like like ( filter ). For complex, multi-line filters, you must put the code inside a file so it will not be wrapped inside parentheses. Either way, the filter must produce syntactically valid code given the template. For example, an if-else branch given on the command line would not be valid:

--filter 'if () { } else { }'  # WRONG

Since it’s given on the command line, the if-else branch would be wrapped inside parentheses which is not syntactically valid. So to accomplish something more complex like this would require putting the code in a file, for example filter.txt:

my $event_ok; if (...) { $event_ok=1; } else { $event_ok=0; } $event_ok

Then specify --filter filter.txt to read the code from filter.txt.

If the filter code won’t compile, pt-upgrade will die with an error. If the filter code does compile, an error may still occur at runtime if the code tries to do something wrong (like pattern match an undefined value). pt-upgrade does not provide any safeguards so code carefully!

An example filter that discards everything but SELECT statements:

--filter '$event->{arg} =~ m/^select/i'

This is compiled into a subroutine like the following:

sub { $event = shift; ( $event->{arg} =~ m/^select/i ) && return $event; }

It is permissible for the code to have side effects (to alter $event).

You can find an explanation of the structure of $event at

--fingerprints Add query fingerprints to the standard query analysis report. This is mostly useful for debugging purposes.

type: int

Round float, double and decimal values to this many places.

This option helps eliminate false-positives caused by floating-point imprecision.

--help Show help and exit.

short form: -h; type: string

Connect to host.


type: int; default: 1

How many times to iterate through the collect-and-report cycle. If 0, iterate to infinity. See also –run-time.


type: string; default: 95%:20

Limit output to the given percentage or count.

If the argument is an integer, report only the top N worst queries. If the argument is an integer followed by the % sign, report that percentage of the worst queries. If the percentage is followed by a colon and another integer, report the top percentage or the number specified by that integer, whichever comes first.


type: string

Print all output to this file when daemonized.


type: int; default: 10

Stop comparing rows for --compare-results-method rows after this many differences are found.


type: string; default: differences:sum

Sort events by this attribute and aggregate function.


short form: -p; type: string

Password to use when connecting.


type: string

Create the given PID file when daemonized. The file contains the process ID of the daemonized instance. The PID file is removed when the daemonized instance exits. The program checks for the existence of the PID file when starting; if it exists and the process with the matching PID exists, the program exits.


short form: -P; type: int

Port number to use for connection.


type: string

Execute and compare this single query; ignores files on command line.

This option allows you to supply a single query on the command line. Any slowlogs also specified on the command line are ignored.


type: Hash; default: queries,differences,errors,statistics

Print these reports. Valid reports are queries, differences, errors, and statistics.

See “OUTPUT” for more information on the various parts of the report.


type: time

How long to run before exiting. The default is to run forever (you can interrupt with CTRL-C).


type: string; default: wait_timeout=10000,query_cache_type=0

Set these MySQL variables. Immediately after connecting to MySQL, this string will be appended to SET and executed.


type: int; default: 1024

Shorten long statements in reports.

Shortens long statements, replacing the omitted portion with a /\*... omitted ...\*/ comment. This applies only to the output in reports. It prevents a large statement from causing difficulty in a report. The argument is the preferred length of the shortened statement. Not all statements can be shortened, but very large INSERT and similar statements often can; and so can IN() lists, although only the first such list in the statement will be shortened.

If it shortens something beyond recognition, you can find the original statement in the log, at the offset shown in the report header (see “OUTPUT”).


short form: -S; type: string

Socket file to use for connection.


type: string

Use this database for creating temporary tables.

If given, this database is used for creating temporary tables for the results comparison (see “–compare”). Otherwise, the current database (from the last event that specified its database) is used.


type: string; default: mk_upgrade

Use this table for checksumming results.


short form: -u; type: string

User for login if not current user.

--version Show version and exit.
 Zero the query times in the report.


These DSN options are used to create a DSN. Each option is given like option=value. The options are case-sensitive, so P and p are not the same option. There cannot be whitespace before or after the =, and if the value contains whitespace it must be quoted. DSN options are comma-separated. See the percona-toolkit manpage for full details.

* A

dsn: charset; copy: yes

Default character set.

* D

dsn: database; copy: yes

Default database.

* F

dsn: mysql_read_default_file; copy: yes

Only read default options from the given file

* h

dsn: host; copy: yes

Connect to host.

* p

dsn: password; copy: yes

Password to use when connecting.

* P

dsn: port; copy: yes

Port number to use for connection.

* S

dsn: mysql_socket; copy: yes

Socket file to use for connection.

* u

dsn: user; copy: yes

User for login if not current user.


The environment variable PTDEBUG enables verbose debugging output to STDERR. To enable debugging and capture all output to a file, run the tool like:

PTDEBUG=1 pt-upgrade ... > FILE 2>&1

Be careful: debugging output is voluminous and can generate several megabytes of output.


You need Perl, DBI, DBD::mysql, and some core packages that ought to be installed in any reasonably new version of Perl.


For a list of known bugs, see

Please report bugs at Include the following information in your bug report:

* Complete command-line used to run the tool

* Tool “–version”

* MySQL version of all servers involved

* Output from the tool including STDERR

* Input files (log/dump/config files, etc.)

If possible, include debugging output by running the tool with PTDEBUG; see “ENVIRONMENT”.


Visit to download the latest release of Percona Toolkit. Or, get the latest release from the command line:




You can also get individual tools from the latest release:


Replace TOOL with the name of any tool.


Daniel Nichter


This tool is part of Percona Toolkit, a collection of advanced command-line tools developed by Percona for MySQL support and consulting. Percona Toolkit was forked from two projects in June, 2011: Maatkit and Aspersa. Those projects were created by Baron Schwartz and developed primarily by him and Daniel Nichter, both of whom are employed by Percona. Visit for more software developed by Percona.


pt-upgrade 1.0.2

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