Encrypting a Schema or a General Tablespace

Percona Server for MySQL uses the same encryption architecture as MySQL, a two-tier system consisting of a master key and tablespace keys. The master key can be changed, or rotated in the keyring, as needed. Each of the tablespace keys, when decrypted, remain the same.

The feature requires the keyring plugin.

Setting the Default for Schemas and General Tablespace Encryption

The tables in a general tablespace are either all encrypted or all unencrypted. A tablespace cannot contain a mixture of encrypted tables and unencrypted tables.

In versions before Percona Server for MySQL 8.0.16-7, use the variable :variable: innodb_encrypt_tables.

variable innodb_encrypt_tables
Command Line:--innodb-encrypt-tables
Removed:version 8.0.16-7
Dynamic:Yes
Scope:Global
Variable Type:Text
Default Value:OFF

The variable is considered deprecated and was removed in version 8.0.16-7. The default setting is “OFF”.

The encryption of a schema or a general tablespace is determined by the :variable: default_table_encryption variable unless you specify the ENCRYPTION clause in the CREATE SCHEMA or CREATE TABLESPACE statement. This variable is implemented in Percona Server for MySQL version 8.0.16-7.

You can set the default_table_encryption variable in an individual connection.

mysql> SET default_table_encryption=ON;

System Variable

variable default_table_encryption
Command Line:default-table-encryption
Dynamic:Yes
Scope:Session
Variable Type:Text
Default Value:OFF

Defines the default encryption setting for schemas and general tablespaces. The variable allows you to create or alter schemas or tablespaces without specifying the ENCRYPTION clause. The default encryption setting applies only to schemas and general tablespaces and is not applied to the MySQL system tablespace.

The variable has the following possible values:

ON

New tables are encrypted. To create unencrypted tables add ENCRYPTION="N" to the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement.

OFF

By default, new tables are unencrypted. To create encrypted tables add ENCRYPTION="Y" to the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement.

FORCE

New tables are created with the Master key. Using the ENCRYPTION=NO to CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE generates an error and the table is not created or altered.

To encrypt an unencrypted table with an ALTER TABLE statement the ENCRYPTION=YES must be explicitly used.

KEYRING_ON

Availablilty:This value is Experimental quality.

New tables are created with the keyring as the default encryption. You may specify a numeric key identifier and use a specific percona-innodb- key from the keyring instead of the default key:

mysql> CREATE TABLE ... ENCRYPTION=`KEYRING` ENCRYPTION_KEY=ID=NEW_ID

NEW_ID is an unsigned 32-bit integer that refers to the numerical part of the percona-innodb- key. When you assign a numerical identifier in the ENCRYPTION_KEY_ID clause, the server uses the latest version of the corresponding key. For example, ENCRYPTION_KEY_ID=2 refers to the latest version of the percona_innodb-2 key from the keyring.

FORCE_KEYRING

Availablilty:This value is Experimental quality.

New tables are created encrypted and the keyring encryption is enforced.

ONLINE_TO_KEYRING

Availablilty:This value is Experimental quality.

It is only possible to apply the keyring encryption when creating or altering tables.

Note

The ALTER TABLE statement changes the current encryption mode only if you use the ENCRYPTION clause.

See also

MySQL Documentation: default_table_encryption https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/server-system-variables.html

variable innodb_encrypt_online_alter_logs
Command Line:--innodb_encrypt-online-alter-logs
Dynamic:Yes
Scope:Global
Variable Type:Boolean
Default Value:OFF

This variable simultaneously turns on the encryption of files used by InnoDB for full text search using parallel sorting, building indexes using merge sort, and online DDL logs created by InnoDB for online DDL. Encryption is available for file merges used in queries and backend processes.

Setting Tablespace ENCRYPTION without the Default Setting

If you do not set the default encryption setting, you can create general tablespaces with the ENCRYPTION setting.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name ENCRYPTION='Y';

All tables contained in the tablespace are either encrypted or not encrypted. You cannot encrypted only some of the tables in a general tablespace. This feature extends the CREATE TABLESPACE statement to accept the ENCRYPTION='Y/N' option.

Note

Prior to Percona Server for MySQL 8.0.13, the ENCRYPTION option was specific to the CREATE TABLE or SHOW CREATE TABLE statement. As of Percona Server for MySQL 8.0.13, this option is a tablespace attribute and no longer allowed with the CREATE TABLE or SHOW CREATE TABLE statement except for file-per-table tablespaces.

In an encrypted general tablespace, an attempt to create an unencrypted table generates the following error:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (a INT, b TEXT) TABLESPACE foo ENCRYPTION='N';
ERROR 1478 (HY0000): InnoDB: Tablespace 'foo' can contain only ENCRYPTED tables.

An attempt to create or to move any tables, including partitioned ones, to a general tablespace with an incompatible encryption setting are diagnosed and the process is aborted.

If you must move tables between incompatible tablespaces, create tables with the same structure in another tablespace and run INSERT INTO SELECT from each of the source tables into the destination tables.

Exporting an Encrypted General Tablespace

You can only export encrypted file-per-table tablespaces