Search Results for: mysql union query

The Optimization That (Often) Isn’t: Index Merge Intersection

Prior to version 5.0, MySQL could only use one index per table in a given query without any exceptions; folks that didn’t understand this limitation would often have tables with lots of single-column indexes on columns which commonly appeared in their WHERE clauses, and they’d wonder why the EXPLAIN plan for a given SELECT would […]

SQL Injection Questions Followup

I presented a webinar today about SQL Injection, to try to clear up some of the misconceptions that many other blogs and articles have about this security risk.  You can register for the webinar even now that I’ve presented it, and you’ll be emailed a link to the recording, which will be available soon. During […]

The case for getting rid of duplicate “sets”

The most useful feature of the relational database is that it allows us to easily process data in sets, which can be much faster than processing it serially. When the relational database was first implemented, write-ahead-logging and other technologies did not exist. This made it difficult to implement the database in a way that matched […]

Moving Subtrees in Closure Table Hierarchies

Many software developers find they need to store hierarchical data, such as threaded comments, personnel org charts, or nested bill-of-materials. Sometimes it’s tricky to do this in SQL and still run efficient queries against the data. I’ll be presenting a webinar for Percona on February 28 at 9am PST. I’ll describe several solutions for storing […]

How is join_buffer_size allocated?

When examining MySQL configuration, we quite often want to know how various buffer sizes are used. This matters because some buffers (sort_buffer_size for example) are allocated to their full size immediately as soon as they are needed, but others are effectively a “max size” and the corresponding buffers are allocated only as big as needed […]

Recall of Percona Server 5.1.47-11.0

Percona Server release 11.0 which we announced few days ago unfortunately was released with a bug introduced while implementing stripping comments in query cache which could cause server crash with certain types of queries if query cache is enabled. We have released Percona Server release 11.1 which includes a fix for this issue. If you […]

When the subselect runs faster

A few weeks ago, we had a query optimization request from one of our customer. The query was very simple like:

This column in the table is looks like this:

The table have 549252 rows and of course, there is an index on the col1. MySQL estimated the cardinality of that index as […]

Multi Column indexes vs Index Merge

The mistake I commonly see among MySQL users is how indexes are created. Quite commonly people just index individual columns as they are referenced in where clause thinking this is the optimal indexing strategy. For example if I would have something like AGE=18 AND STATE=’CA’ they would create 2 separate indexes on AGE and STATE […]


How would you expect AUTO_INCREMENT to work with MERGE tables ? Assuming INSERT_METHOD=LAST is used I would expect it to work same as in case insertion happens to the last table… which does not seems to be the case. Alternatively I would expect AUTO_INCREMENT to be based off the maximum value across all tables, respecting […]