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High %system usage on CentOS 6

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  • High %system usage on CentOS 6

    Hi!
    I have percona server 5.5 on centos 6.
    For some reason after migration from Debian 6 I noticed very high %system usage. My database is in MyISAM. datadir is on SSD drive and filesystem is ext4. Disk IOwait is negligible.

    Config

    [client]port = 3306socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock[mysqld_safe]socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.socknice = 0syslog[mysqld]user = mysqlpid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pidsocket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sockport = 3306basedir = /usrdatadir = /var/lib/mysqltmpdir = /tmplanguage = /usr/share/mysql/englishbind-address = 127.0.0.1key_buffer = 16Mmax_allowed_packet = 16Mthread_stack = 192Kthread_cache_size = 8myisam-recover = BACKUPmax_connections = 100table_cache =256query_cache_limit = 1Mquery_cache_size = 160Mlog-slow-queries=/var/log/mysql/slow.loglong_query_time = 3server-id = 1expire_logs_days = 10max_binlog_size = 100M[mysqldump]quickquote-namesmax_allowed_packet = 16M[mysql][isamchk]key_buffer = 16M


    strace output

    #strace -c -f -p `cat /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid`....% time seconds usecs/call calls errors syscall------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ---------------- 52.63 920.292057 3504 262650 87126 futex 17.64 308.456980 566 545010 read 16.23 283.792870 110382 2571 io_getevents 4.85 84.785368 170 497764 pread 4.77 83.364632 169 494319 lseek 1.60 27.938756 1074568 26 select 1.45 25.424522 48893 520 poll 0.36 6.244999 115 54218 405 setsockopt 0.21 3.710897 139 26638 write 0.16 2.841632 111 25668 time 0.04 0.716892 179223 4 3 restart_syscall 0.03 0.453605 174 2605 fcntl 0.01 0.092816 213 435 close 0.01 0.090402 181 500 lstat 0.00 0.083245 160 521 accept 0.00 0.077783 149 521 getsockname 0.00 0.077507 128 606 pwrite 0.00 0.076907 180 427 shutdown 0.00 0.068661 135 510 117 access 0.00 0.053822 285 189 mprotect 0.00 0.024522 227 108 clone 0.00 0.024203 194 125 open 0.00 0.019102 177 108 set_robust_list 0.00 0.015202 197 77 madvise 0.00 0.014675 117 125 getcwd 0.00 0.012397 120 103 getpeername 0.00 0.008505 131 65 mmap 0.00 0.002794 233 12 brk------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------100.00 1748.765753 1916425 87651 total


    Is there something related to high system load?

    Heaviest queries are like this one:

    mysql> explain SELECT i.inumber as itemid, i.ititle as title, i.ibody as body, m.mname as author, m.mrealname as authorname, UNIX_TIMESTAMP(i.itime) as timestamp, i.itime, i.imore as more, m.mnumber as authorid, c.cname as category, i.icat as catid, i.iclosed as closed FROM nucleus_item as i USE INDEX(`TDB-T`), nucleus_member as m, nucleus_category as c WHERE i.iauthor=m.mnumber and i.icat=c.catid and i.iblog=1 and i.itime<="2011-09-03 22:13:17" and i.idraft=0 ORDER BY i.itime DESC LIMIT 8941,9;+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+| 1 | SIMPLE | i | range | TDB-T | TDB-T | 13 | NULL | 67306 | Using where || 1 | SIMPLE | c | eq_ref | PRIMARY | PRIMARY | 4 | db.i.icat | 1 | || 1 | SIMPLE | m | eq_ref | PRIMARY | PRIMARY | 4 | db.i.iauthor | 1 | |+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)


    Is there something wrong with this kind of query?

  • #2
    key_buffer = 16M
    That value seems very low for a MyISAM server.
    query_cache_size = 160M
    That value seems to be a bit high. If you have many queries/sec, try disabling the query cache altogether.

    Your query has a high LIMIT offset, but the response time is still very low, so I think neither of these is the true cause of your problem. Do you also have oprofile output?

    Comment


    • #3
      It seems like I can't see performance problems now. Can't figure out what caused performance issues.
      Anyway thanks. I'll play with query_cache_size a bit more.

      Comment


      • #4
        melco wrote on Sat, 03 September 2011 13:00
        Hi!

        Is there something related to high system load?
        The answer is really 'it depends'.


        I find that server load and looking at metrics like top and sysstat and those types of things being really deceptive; Its not what I really care about (though they're still important).

        For me, the most important thing is 'response time'. I need to know that my important queries return within X milliseconds.



        melco wrote on Sat, 03 September 2011 13:00

        Heaviest queries are like this one:

        mysql> explain SELECT i.inumber as itemid, i.ititle as title, i.ibody as body, m.mname as author, m.mrealname as authorname, UNIX_TIMESTAMP(i.itime) as timestamp, i.itime, i.imore as more, m.mnumber as authorid, c.cname as category, i.icat as catid, i.iclosed as closed FROM nucleus_item as i USE INDEX(`TDB-T`), nucleus_member as m, nucleus_category as c WHERE i.iauthor=m.mnumber and i.icat=c.catid and i.iblog=1 and i.itime<="2011-09-03 22:13:17" and i.idraft=0 ORDER BY i.itime DESC LIMIT 8941,9;+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+| 1 | SIMPLE | i | range | TDB-T | TDB-T | 13 | NULL | 67306 | Using where || 1 | SIMPLE | c | eq_ref | PRIMARY | PRIMARY | 4 | db.i.icat | 1 | || 1 | SIMPLE | m | eq_ref | PRIMARY | PRIMARY | 4 | db.i.iauthor | 1 | |+----+-------------+-------+--------+---------------+---------+---------+---------------+-------+-------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)


        Is there something wrong with this kind of query?
        Keep in mind the following.
        You have 1 query that runs 10000 times a minute that takes a millisecond to execute. Then you have a query that is run 1 time a minute that takes 5 seconds- eg the heavy query.

        If you optimise that second query by adding an index on the same table, its possible that the first query can be twice as slow therefore impacting you overall performance.

        So keep that in mind as just looking at a single query doesnt really reflect whats going on and what will provide a really positive win for you.


        What I think you can do and what will provide a big win is if you have a MySQL (or Percona) server that has microsecond slow query logging doing the following:

        (Keep in mind there will be a small mysql overhead and IO overhead for the logs with this)
        1. enable the mysql slow query log
        2. set the long_query_time to 0
        3. let this run for a period of time that reflects the workload.
        4. Run mk-query-digest over the slow query log to highlight the most expensive queries.


        mk-query-digest will call out those queries that are run over and over - as those queries are the ones that should be the focus of optimisation as they will provide the biggest win.


        Shoot me a tweet (@mysqldbahelp) if you need further details

        Kind regards

        Trent Hornibrook
        @mysqldbahelp

        Comment


        • #5
          melco,

          You say that you have migrated from Debian 6 to CentOS 6, did you have the same hardware and mysql configuration on Debian 6 as you have now?
          And as gmouse said, considering you have mostly MyISAM tables you should consider increasing the key cache size. You can query the information_schema table to find out the index lengths for the heavily used tables and increase the key cache size to at least that much.

          Finally, considering your query:

          mysql> explain SELECT i.inumber as itemid, i.ititle as title, i.ibody as body, m.mname as author, m.mrealname as authorname, UNIX_TIMESTAMP(i.itime) as timestamp, i.itime, i.imore as more, m.mnumber as authorid, c.cname as category, i.icat as catid, i.iclosed as closed FROM nucleus_item as i USE INDEX(`TDB-T`), nucleus_member as m, nucleus_category as c WHERE i.iauthor=m.mnumber and i.icat=c.catid and i.iblog=1 and i.itime<="2011-09-03 22:13:17" and i.idraft=0 ORDER BY i.itime DESC LIMIT 8941,9;

          That is not particularly a good query, MySQL would still be reading all the 8941 and skip them and send you only the 9 you requested. You can make some improvements in the query by using somekind of a rowid instead of using the LIMIT like this.

          Comment

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