pt-find

NAME

pt-find - Find MySQL tables and execute actions, like GNU find.

SYNOPSIS

Usage

pt-find [OPTIONS] [DATABASES]

pt-find searches for MySQL tables and executes actions, like GNU find. The default action is to print the database and table name.

Find all tables created more than a day ago, which use the MyISAM engine, and print their names:

pt-find --ctime +1 --engine MyISAM

Find InnoDB tables and convert them to MyISAM:

pt-find --engine InnoDB --exec "ALTER TABLE %D.%N ENGINE=MyISAM"

Find tables created by a process that no longer exists, following the name_sid_pid naming convention, and remove them.

pt-find --connection-id '\D_\d+_(\d+)$' --server-id '\D_(\d+)_\d+$' --exec-plus "DROP TABLE %s"

Find empty tables in the test and junk databases, and delete them:

pt-find --empty junk test --exec-plus "DROP TABLE %s"

Find tables more than five gigabytes in total size:

pt-find --tablesize +5G

Find all tables and print their total data and index size, and sort largest tables first (sort is a different program, by the way).

pt-find --printf "%T\t%D.%N\n" | sort -rn

As above, but this time, insert the data back into the database for posterity:

pt-find --noquote --exec "INSERT INTO sysdata.tblsize(db, tbl, size) VALUES('%D', '%N', %T)"

RISKS

Percona Toolkit is mature, proven in the real world, and well tested, but all database tools can pose a risk to the system and the database server. Before using this tool, please:

  • Read the tool’s documentation
  • Review the tool’s known “BUGS”
  • Test the tool on a non-production server
  • Backup your production server and verify the backups

DESCRIPTION

pt-find looks for MySQL tables that pass the tests you specify, and executes the actions you specify. The default action is to print the database and table name to STDOUT.

pt-find is simpler than GNU find. It doesn’t allow you to specify complicated expressions on the command line.

pt-find uses SHOW TABLES when possible, and SHOW TABLE STATUS when needed.

OPTION TYPES

There are three types of options: normal options, which determine some behavior or setting; tests, which determine whether a table should be included in the list of tables found; and actions, which do something to the tables pt-find finds.

pt-find uses standard Getopt::Long option parsing, so you should use double dashes in front of long option names, unlike GNU find.

OPTIONS

This tool accepts additional command-line arguments. Refer to the “SYNOPSIS” and usage information for details.

--ask-pass

Prompt for a password when connecting to MySQL.

--case-insensitive

Specifies that all regular expression searches are case-insensitive.

--charset

short form: -A; type: string

Default character set. If the value is utf8, sets Perl’s binmode on STDOUT to utf8, passes the mysql_enable_utf8 option to DBD::mysql, and runs SET NAMES UTF8 after connecting to MySQL. Any other value sets binmode on STDOUT without the utf8 layer, and runs SET NAMES after connecting to MySQL.

--config

type: Array

Read this comma-separated list of config files; if specified, this must be the first option on the command line.

--database

short form: -D; type: string

Connect to this database.

--day-start

Measure times (for --mmin, etc) from the beginning of today rather than from the current time.

--defaults-file

short form: -F; type: string

Only read mysql options from the given file. You must give an absolute pathname.

--help

Show help and exit.

--host

short form: -h; type: string

Connect to host.

--or

Combine tests with OR, not AND.

By default, tests are evaluated as though there were an AND between them. This option switches it to OR.

Option parsing is not implemented by pt-find itself, so you cannot specify complicated expressions with parentheses and mixtures of OR and AND.

--password

short form: -p; type: string

Password to use when connecting.

--pid

type: string

Create the given PID file. The tool won’t start if the PID file already exists and the PID it contains is different than the current PID. However, if the PID file exists and the PID it contains is no longer running, the tool will overwrite the PID file with the current PID. The PID file is removed automatically when the tool exits.

--port

short form: -P; type: int

Port number to use for connection.

--[no]quote

default: yes

Quotes MySQL identifier names with MySQL’s standard backtick character.

Quoting happens after tests are run, and before actions are run.

--set-vars

type: Array

Set the MySQL variables in this comma-separated list of variable=value pairs.

By default, the tool sets:

wait_timeout=10000

Variables specified on the command line override these defaults. For example, specifying --set-vars wait_timeout=500 overrides the defaultvalue of 10000.

The tool prints a warning and continues if a variable cannot be set.

--socket

short form: -S; type: string

Socket file to use for connection.

--user

short form: -u; type: string

User for login if not current user.

--version

Show version and exit.

--[no]version-check

default: yes

Check for the latest version of Percona Toolkit, MySQL, and other programs.

This is a standard “check for updates automatically” feature, with two additional features. First, the tool checks the version of other programs on the local system in addition to its own version. For example, it checks the version of every MySQL server it connects to, Perl, and the Perl module DBD::mysql. Second, it checks for and warns about versions with known problems. For example, MySQL 5.5.25 had a critical bug and was re-released as 5.5.25a.

Any updates or known problems are printed to STDOUT before the tool’s normal output. This feature should never interfere with the normal operation of the tool.

For more information, visit https://www.percona.com/version-check.

TESTS

Most tests check some criterion against a column of SHOW TABLE STATUS output. Numeric arguments can be specified as +n for greater than n, -n for less than n, and n for exactly n. All numeric options can take an optional suffix multiplier of k, M or G (1_024, 1_048_576, and 1_073_741_824 respectively). All patterns are Perl regular expressions (see ‘man perlre’) unless specified as SQL LIKE patterns.

Dates and times are all measured relative to the same instant, when pt-find first asks the database server what time it is. All date and time manipulation is done in SQL, so if you say to find tables modified 5 days ago, that translates to SELECT DATE_SUB(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL 5 DAY). If you specify --day-start, if course it’s relative to CURRENT_DATE instead.

However, table sizes and other metrics are not consistent at an instant in time. It can take some time for MySQL to process all the SHOW queries, and pt-find can’t do anything about that. These measurements are as of the time they’re taken.

If you need some test that’s not in this list, file a bug report and I’ll enhance pt-find for you. It’s really easy.

--autoinc

type: string; group: Tests

Table’s next AUTO_INCREMENT is n. This tests the Auto_increment column.

--avgrowlen

type: size; group: Tests

Table avg row len is n bytes. This tests the Avg_row_length column. The specified size can be “NULL” to test where Avg_row_length IS NULL.

--checksum

type: string; group: Tests

Table checksum is n. This tests the Checksum column.

--cmin

type: size; group: Tests

Table was created n minutes ago. This tests the Create_time column.

--collation

type: string; group: Tests

Table collation matches pattern. This tests the Collation column.

--column-name

type: string; group: Tests

A column name in the table matches pattern.

--column-type

type: string; group: Tests

A column in the table matches this type (case-insensitive).

Examples of types are: varchar, char, int, smallint, bigint, decimal, year, timestamp, text, enum.

--comment

type: string; group: Tests

Table comment matches pattern. This tests the Comment column.

--connection-id

type: string; group: Tests

Table name has nonexistent MySQL connection ID. This tests the table name for a pattern. The argument to this test must be a Perl regular expression that captures digits like this: (d+). If the table name matches the pattern, these captured digits are taken to be the MySQL connection ID of some process. If the connection doesn’t exist according to SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST, the test returns true. If the connection ID is greater than pt-find‘s own connection ID, the test returns false for safety.

Why would you want to do this? If you use MySQL statement-based replication, you probably know the trouble temporary tables can cause. You might choose to work around this by creating real tables with unique names, instead of temporary tables. One way to do this is to append your connection ID to the end of the table, thusly: scratch_table_12345. This assures the table name is unique and lets you have a way to find which connection it was associated with. And perhaps most importantly, if the connection no longer exists, you can assume the connection died without cleaning up its tables, and this table is a candidate for removal.

This is how I manage scratch tables, and that’s why I included this test in pt-find.

The argument I use to --connection-id is “D_(d+)$”. That finds tables with a series of numbers at the end, preceded by an underscore and some non-number character (the latter criterion prevents me from examining tables with a date at the end, which people tend to do: baron_scratch_2007_05_07 for example). It’s better to keep the scratch tables separate of course.

If you do this, make sure the user pt-find runs as has the PROCESS privilege! Otherwise it will only see connections from the same user, and might think some tables are ready to remove when they’re still in use. For safety, pt-find checks this for you.

See also --server-id.

--createopts

type: string; group: Tests

Table create option matches pattern. This tests the Create_options column.

--ctime

type: size; group: Tests

Table was created n days ago. This tests the Create_time column.

--datafree

type: size; group: Tests

Table has n bytes of free space. This tests the Data_free column. The specified size can be “NULL” to test where Data_free IS NULL.

--datasize

type: size; group: Tests

Table data uses n bytes of space. This tests the Data_length column. The specified size can be “NULL” to test where Data_length IS NULL.

--dblike

type: string; group: Tests

Database name matches SQL LIKE pattern.

--dbregex

type: string; group: Tests

Database name matches this pattern.

--empty

group: Tests

Table has no rows. This tests the Rows column.

--engine

type: string; group: Tests

Table storage engine matches this pattern. This tests the Engine column, or in earlier versions of MySQL, the Type column.

--function

type: string; group: Tests

Function definition matches pattern.

--indexsize

type: size; group: Tests

Table indexes use n bytes of space. This tests the Index_length column. The specified size can be “NULL” to test where Index_length IS NULL.

--kmin

type: size; group: Tests

Table was checked n minutes ago. This tests the Check_time column.

--ktime

type: size; group: Tests

Table was checked n days ago. This tests the Check_time column.

--mmin

type: size; group: Tests

Table was last modified n minutes ago. This tests the Update_time column.

--mtime

type: size; group: Tests

Table was last modified n days ago. This tests the Update_time column.

--procedure

type: string; group: Tests

Procedure definition matches pattern.

--rowformat

type: string; group: Tests

Table row format matches pattern. This tests the Row_format column.

--rows

type: size; group: Tests

Table has n rows. This tests the Rows column. The specified size can be “NULL” to test where Rows IS NULL.

--server-id

type: string; group: Tests

Table name contains the server ID. If you create temporary tables with the naming convention explained in --connection-id, but also add the server ID of the server on which the tables are created, then you can use this pattern match to ensure tables are dropped only on the server they’re created on. This prevents a table from being accidentally dropped on a slave while it’s in use (provided that your server IDs are all unique, which they should be for replication to work).

For example, on the master (server ID 22) you create a table called scratch_table_22_12345. If you see this table on the slave (server ID 23), you might think it can be dropped safely if there’s no such connection 12345. But if you also force the name to match the server ID with --server-id '\D_(\d+)_\d+$', the table won’t be dropped on the slave.

--tablesize

type: size; group: Tests

Table uses n bytes of space. This tests the sum of the Data_length and Index_length columns.

--tbllike

type: string; group: Tests

Table name matches SQL LIKE pattern.

--tblregex

type: string; group: Tests

Table name matches this pattern.

--tblversion

type: size; group: Tests

Table version is n. This tests the Version column.

--trigger

type: string; group: Tests

Trigger action statement matches pattern.

--trigger-table

type: string; group: Tests

--trigger is defined on table matching pattern.

--view

type: string; group: Tests

CREATE VIEW matches this pattern.

ACTIONS

The --exec-plus action happens after everything else, but otherwise actions happen in an indeterminate order. If you need determinism, file a bug report and I’ll add this feature.

--exec

type: string; group: Actions

Execute this SQL with each item found. The SQL can contain escapes and formatting directives (see --printf).

--exec-dsn

type: string; group: Actions

Specify a DSN in key-value format to use when executing SQL with --exec and --exec-plus. Any values not specified are inherited from command-line arguments.

--exec-plus

type: string; group: Actions

Execute this SQL with all items at once. This option is unlike --exec. There are no escaping or formatting directives; there is only one special placeholder for the list of database and table names, %s. The list of tables found will be joined together with commas and substituted wherever you place %s.

You might use this, for example, to drop all the tables you found:

DROP TABLE %s

This is sort of like GNU find’s “-exec command {} +” syntax. Only it’s not totally cryptic. And it doesn’t require me to write a command-line parser.

--print

group: Actions

Print the database and table name, followed by a newline. This is the default action if no other action is specified.

--printf

type: string; group: Actions

Print format on the standard output, interpreting ‘’ escapes and ‘%’ directives. Escapes are backslashed characters, like n and t. Perl interprets these, so you can use any escapes Perl knows about. Directives are replaced by %s, and as of this writing, you can’t add any special formatting instructions, like field widths or alignment (though I’m musing over ways to do that).

Here is a list of the directives. Note that most of them simply come from columns of SHOW TABLE STATUS. If the column is NULL or doesn’t exist, you get an empty string in the output. A % character followed by any character not in the following list is discarded (but the other character is printed).

CHAR DATA SOURCE        NOTES
---- ------------------ ------------------------------------------
a    Auto_increment
A    Avg_row_length
c    Checksum
C    Create_time
D    Database           The database name in which the table lives
d    Data_length
E    Engine             In older versions of MySQL, this is Type
F    Data_free
f    Innodb_free        Parsed from the Comment field
I    Index_length
K    Check_time
L    Collation
M    Max_data_length
N    Name
O    Comment
P    Create_options
R    Row_format
S    Rows
T    Table_length       Data_length+Index_length
U    Update_time
V    Version

DSN OPTIONS

These DSN options are used to create a DSN. Each option is given like option=value. The options are case-sensitive, so P and p are not the same option. There cannot be whitespace before or after the = and if the value contains whitespace it must be quoted. DSN options are comma-separated. See the percona-toolkit manpage for full details.

  • A

dsn: charset; copy: yes

Default character set.

  • D

dsn: database; copy: yes

Default database.

  • F

dsn: mysql_read_default_file; copy: yes

Only read default options from the given file

  • h

dsn: host; copy: yes

Connect to host.

  • p

dsn: password; copy: yes

Password to use when connecting.

  • P

dsn: port; copy: yes

Port number to use for connection.

  • S

dsn: mysql_socket; copy: yes

Socket file to use for connection.

  • u

dsn: user; copy: yes

User for login if not current user.

ENVIRONMENT

The environment variable PTDEBUG enables verbose debugging output to STDERR. To enable debugging and capture all output to a file, run the tool like:

PTDEBUG=1 pt-find ... > FILE 2>&1

Be careful: debugging output is voluminous and can generate several megabytes of output.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

You need Perl, DBI, DBD::mysql, and some core packages that ought to be installed in any reasonably new version of Perl.

BUGS

For a list of known bugs, see http://www.percona.com/bugs/pt-find.

Please report bugs at https://bugs.launchpad.net/percona-toolkit. Include the following information in your bug report:

  • Complete command-line used to run the tool
  • Tool --version
  • MySQL version of all servers involved
  • Output from the tool including STDERR
  • Input files (log/dump/config files, etc.)

If possible, include debugging output by running the tool with PTDEBUG; see “ENVIRONMENT”.

DOWNLOADING

Visit http://www.percona.com/software/percona-toolkit/ to download the latest release of Percona Toolkit. Or, get the latest release from the command line:

wget percona.com/get/percona-toolkit.tar.gz

wget percona.com/get/percona-toolkit.rpm

wget percona.com/get/percona-toolkit.deb

You can also get individual tools from the latest release:

wget percona.com/get/TOOL

Replace TOOL with the name of any tool.

AUTHORS

Baron Schwartz

ABOUT PERCONA TOOLKIT

This tool is part of Percona Toolkit, a collection of advanced command-line tools for MySQL developed by Percona. Percona Toolkit was forked from two projects in June, 2011: Maatkit and Aspersa. Those projects were created by Baron Schwartz and primarily developed by him and Daniel Nichter. Visit http://www.percona.com/software/ to learn about other free, open-source software from Percona.

VERSION

pt-find 2.2.6

Percona Toolkit
Call Us
+1-888-316-9775 (USA - Sales)
+1-208-473-2904 (USA - Sales)
+44-208-133-0309 (UK - Sales)
0-800-051-8984 (UK - Sales)
0-800-181-0665 (GER - Sales)
+1-877-862-4316 (Emergency)
+1-855-55TRAIN (Training)
+1-925-271-5054 (Training)

Table Of Contents

Previous topic

pt-fifo-split

Next topic

pt-fingerprint

This Page



© Copyright 2013, Percona LLC and/or its affiliates.
Except where otherwise noted, this documentation is licensed under the following license:
CC Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic
Created using Sphinx 1.1.3.
This documentation is developed in Launchpad as part of the Percona Toolkit source code.
If you spotted innacuracies, errors, don't understood it or you think something is missing or should be improved, please file a bug.
]]>