Search Results for: explain ref const

How InnoDB promotes UNIQUE constraints

The other day I was running pt-duplicate-key-checker on behalf of a customer and noticed some peculiar recommendations on an InnoDB table with an odd structure (no PRIMARY key, but multiple UNIQUE constraints). This got me thinking about how InnoDB promotes UNIQUE constraints to the role of PRIMARY KEYs. The documentation is pretty clear: [DOCS] When […]

When EXPLAIN estimates can go wrong!

I have been working with a few customer cases and one interesting case popped up. The customer was facing a peculiar problem where the rows column in the EXPLAIN output of the query was totally off. The actual number of rows was 18 times more than the number of rows reported by MySQL in the […]

EXPLAIN EXTENDED can tell you all kinds of interesting things

While many people are familiar with the MySQL EXPLAIN command, fewer people are familiar with “extended explain” which was added in MySQL 4.1 EXPLAIN EXTENDED can show you what the MySQL optimizer does to your query. You might not know this, but MySQL can dramatically change your query before it actually executes it. This process […]

Covering index and prefix indexes

I already wrote in the blog as well mentioned in presentation there is often a choice you have to make between having prefix index – which can be significantly smaller in size and having index being covering index, which means query can be executed using only data from the index without reading the row itself. […]

Why Index could refuse to work ?

Have you ever seen index which refused to be used even if there is every reason for it to work (from the glance view):

Why on the earth index would not be used you would think, even if MySQL is mentioning it in “possible keys” ? Should you try to force it ?

Extended EXPLAIN

One nice feature added for EXPLAIN statement in MySQL 4.1 is EXTENDED keyword which provides you with some helpful additional information on query optimization. It should be used together with SHOW WARNINGS to get information about how query looks after transformation as well as what other notes optimizer may wish to tell us. It is […]

Hyper-threading – how does it double CPU throughput?

The other day a customer asked me to do capacity planning for their web server farm. I was looking at the CPU graph for one of the web servers that had Hyper-threading switched ON and thought to myself: “This must be quite a misleading graph – it shows 30% CPU usage. It can’t really be […]

How small changes impact complex systems – MySQL example

If you’ve been studying complex systems you know what minor changes might cause consequences of much greater proportions, sometimes causing some effects that are not easily explained at first. I recently ran across a great illustration of such behavior while doing MySQL benchmarks which I thought would be interesting to share. I’m using a very […]