Search Results for: disk io

Aligning IO on a hard disk RAID – the Theory

Now that flash storage is becoming more popular, IO alignment question keeps popping up more often than it used to when all we had were rotating hard disk drives. I think the reason is very simple – when systems only had one bearing hard disk drive (HDD) as in RAID1 or one disk drive at […]

Spreading .ibd files across multiple disks; the optimization that isn’t

Inspired by Baron’s earlier post, here is one I hear quite frequently – “If you enable innodb_file_per_table, each table is it’s own .ibd file.  You can then relocate the heavy hit tables to a different location and create symlinks to the original location.” There are a few things wrong with this advice:

Illustrating Primary Key models in InnoDB and their impact on disk usage

On a recent engagement I worked with a customer who makes extensive use of UUID() values for their Primary Key and stores it as char(36), and their row count on this example table has grown to over 1 billion rows. The table is INSERT-only (no UPDATEs or DELETEs), and the bulk of their retrieval are PK […]

Looking deeper into InnoDB’s problem with many row versions

A few days ago I wrote about MySQL performance implications of InnoDB isolation modes and I touched briefly upon the bizarre performance regression I found with InnoDB handling a large amount of versions for a single row. Today I wanted to look a bit deeper into the problem, which I also filed as a bug. First […]

MySQL performance implications of InnoDB isolation modes

Over the past few months I’ve written a couple of posts about dangerous debt of InnoDB Transactional History and about the fact MVCC can be the cause of severe MySQL performance issues. In this post I will cover a related topic – InnoDB Transaction Isolation Modes, their relationship with MVCC (multi-version concurrency control) and how […]

InnoDB’s multi-versioning handling can be Achilles’ heel

I believe InnoDB storage engine architecture is great for a lot of online workloads, however, there are no silver bullets in technology and all design choices have their trade offs. In this blog post I’m going to talk about one important InnoDB limitation that you should consider. InnoDB is a multiversion concurrency control (MVCC) storage […]

Typical misconceptions on Galera Replication for MySQL

Even if a Galera node looks like a regular MySQL server, the underlying replication mechanism is very different. This implies some changes in the way you have to configure the Galera nodes. Here are some of the most common misconceptions about Galera when using Percona XtraDB Cluster. Q: Why should I enable binary logging as […]

Innodb transaction history often hides dangerous ‘debt’

In many write-intensive workloads Innodb/XtraDB storage engines you may see hidden and dangerous “debt” being accumulated – unpurged transaction “history” which if not kept in check over time will cause serve performance regression or will take all free space and cause an outage. Let’s talk about where it comes from and what can you do […]

MySQL compression: Compressed and Uncompressed data size

MySQL has information_schema.tables that contain information such as “data_length” or “avg_row_length.” Documentation on this table however is quite poor, making an assumption that those fields are self explanatory – they are not when it comes to tables that employ compression. And this is where inconsistency is born. Lets take a look at the same table […]